The Experience and Enlightenment of German Domestic Waste Treatment

08.27, 2020
The beautiful and clean environment of Germany is inseparable from its implementation of sustainable development strategy and emphasis on life. Germany's experience and practices in domestic waste disposal are worth learning and learning from.
  Do a good job in the classification of domestic waste
   In the mid-1980s, the garbage disposal in many cities in Germany was the same as the current situation in my country. It was either incinerated or landfilled. As a result, the landfill cannot accommodate the ever-increasing amount of domestic waste, and it brings pollution to the water environment and air. For this reason, the German Federal Government passed the packaging regulations in 1991, requiring manufacturers to be fully responsible for their product packaging.
  Subsequently, the industry established and reprocessing system (SDS), mainly responsible for life and reprocessing work. Every year, local governments will issue special Garbage Classification Instructions and Garbage Cleaning Schedule to each family, requiring residents to classify garbage according to requirements. The truck will collect and transport all kinds of garbage in residential areas according to the schedule. According to the different regulations of various cities, villages and towns, daily garbage is generally divided into 4 to 5 categories, and then at least 62 types of household garbage are subdivided. For example, blue buckets are paper, brown or green buckets are organic matter, yellow buckets are packaging bags, and black buckets are residual garbage that does not contain harmful substances and cannot be reused. Glass bottles have special delivery buckets, which are sorted by color. Iron and steel, as well as special garbage such as batteries, paint, medicines, pesticides, etc., are recycled separately. Large-scale furniture and electrical appliances are scheduled to be recycled several times a year. Recently, a pilot program for the recycling of smart small home appliances was launched.
   In order to encourage waste recycling, a refundable deposit system for beverage bottles has been implemented. In order to implement the garbage classification, the environmental police will also conduct random inspections on the garbage classification. In this way, the classification and reduction of domestic waste have been realized, creating conditions for waste incineration and reducing pollution. For example, after nearly 20 years of hard work in Freiburg, Germany, the amount of waste produced per capita has dropped from 190 kg to 90 kg, and the domestic waste treatment rate has reached almost 100%. 60% of the garbage is recycled and the city has become a clean and beautiful green city.
  Promote the resource utilization of domestic waste
   After sorting domestic waste, the key is to make good use of articles, turn waste into treasure, and make it a resource and raw material for production. In accordance with the requirements for the protection and utilization of renewable resources, the German government comprehensively utilizes classified wastes for recycling, forming a waste economy or a circular economy. The classified waste is regarded as an important energy carrier and secondary raw material. For example, 40% of all plastic garbage collected in Germany is strictly sorted according to the type. 21 million tons of plastic are reused and processed into recycled raw materials. The cost of producing 1 ton of plastic from new raw materials is between 1,200 and 1,400 euros, while the cost of recycled plastic produced from recycled waste plastics is only 500 euros. Compared with the original recycling, the value of recycled raw materials is 3 to 4 times. Germany has thus formed an ecological waste economy or waste economic industry with a turnover of more than 200 billion euros. The output value of the industry has grown by 14% annually, creating jobs for approximately 250,000 people.
   Formulate a legal system for domestic waste management
   The establishment of laws and regulations is an important means for Germany to successfully promote domestic waste management. The successful disposal of German domestic waste, domestic waste has become a raw material, and the eco-waste economy has become a major industry. The key lies in the implementation of the system and the conscious behavior of residents. On the basis of strict law enforcement, the German government encourages voluntary commitments from the industrial and commercial circles to form a complete and distinctive waste management system. In 1972, Germany promulgated the "Waste Management Law", requiring the closure of waste dumps and the establishment of a central waste disposal station for incineration and landfill. After the oil crisis, Germany began to obtain electricity and heat from waste incineration. In 1986, a new "Waste Management Law" was promulgated to solve the problem of waste reduction and reuse. In 1991, Germany passed the "Packaging Regulations", which in principle requires manufacturers and distributors to be fully responsible for their product packaging, to recycle their product packaging, and to reuse or recycle the effective part of it to reduce the consumption of packaging materials. In 1992, the "Regulations on Restriction of Discarded Vehicles" were passed, stipulating that automakers are obliged to recycle used cars. After a series of practices in major fields, Germany proposed a new "Circular Economy and Waste Management Law" in 1996, which raised waste to the level of thinking of developing a circular economy.
   The enlightenment of German experience to our country
Combining with the current situation of my country’s current garbage siege phenomenon and many conflicts and disputes in garbage disposal, the author believes that my country should earnestly learn from the successful experience of German domestic garbage disposal and change the current passive garbage classification behavior that is dominated by scavengers. Start with, cultivate good behaviors of urban residents and rural people, and vigorously promote the classification and reduction of domestic waste.
  To give full play to the government's leading and guiding position in garbage disposal, formulate relevant legal systems, policy measures, and use administrative and economic means to give play to the various roles of government, enterprises, society, and individuals to increase garbage classification. Strengthen the environmental awareness and environmental participation awareness of enterprises and citizens, and promote the classification and reduction of waste.
It is necessary to overcome the current system and mechanism of government departments to arrange domestic waste, allow state-owned enterprises and private enterprises to participate in the disposal and processing of domestic waste, form a waste treatment model supported by the government, led by enterprises, and public participation, so as to realize the resource utilization of domestic waste and promote ecology The development of the waste industry has made active efforts to create a beautiful, clean, ecological and environmentally friendly living environment, promote the recycling of resources, and achieve green development and sustainable development.