Development and recent status of biomass gasification
Biomass energy is the earliest, most and most direct energy used by mankind. Before the large-scale use of coal as fuel in the 18th century, mankind mainly relied on wood as fuel. The energy contained in biomass is quite amazing. According to estimates by biologists, the total amount of biomass energy grown on the earth is about 140-180 billion tons (dry weight), which is equivalent to 10 times the current world energy consumption. my country is also extremely rich in biomass energy. For example, the annual amount of straw is about 800 million tons, which is equivalent to about 500 million tons of standard coal. The amount of firewood and forestry waste is also very large. Forestry waste (excluding charcoal forest) is about 3700m³ per year, which is equivalent to 20 million tons of standard coal.
At present, human beings are facing tremendous energy and environmental pressure. The energy in the world today is mainly derived from fossil fuels, including coal, oil, natural gas, etc. The application of fossil energy has promoted social development, but its resources are increasingly depleted. According to the current technical level and extraction volume, oil can be exploited 40 In 2015, coal can be mined for 200 years and natural gas can be mined for 60 years. On the other hand, the excessive use of fossil energy has caused increasingly serious environmental problems, such as global warming, destruction of the ozone layer, ecological imbalance, emissions of harmful substances, Natural disasters such as acid rain. Therefore, the development and search for new alternative energy sources has become one of the major issues that human society urgently needs to solve, and biomass energy is the most important alternative energy source in the future.
Biomass combustion is a traditional utilization method, but its thermal efficiency is low, and it is labor intensive and pollutes serious. Biomass energy conversion technology can efficiently use biomass energy to produce a variety of clean fuels instead of coal, oil, natural gas and other fuels; it can also be used to produce electricity, reduce dependence on fossil energy, protect national energy resources, and reduce energy Environmental pollution caused by consumption.
Biomass gasification technology is a process of converting solid biomass into gaseous fuels through thermochemical reactions. my country's biomass gasification technology began around the 1980s. Biomass gasifiers can be divided into two types: fixed bed and fluidized bed according to different operating modes. The fixed bed gasifier is divided into upper suction type, horizontal suction type and down suction type.
Biomass gasification technology has changed the traditional way of directly burning biomass to obtain energy. Through gasification technology, biomass is converted into clean combustible gas, which greatly increases the use range of biomass energy.